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tox configuration and usage examples

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py.test and tox

Basic usage

a simple tox.ini / default environments

Put basic information about your project and the test environments you want your project to run in into a tox.ini file that should reside next to your setup.py file:

# content of: tox.ini , put in same dir as setup.py
envlist = py26,py27
deps=pytest # or 'nose' or ...
commands=py.test  # or 'nosetests' or ...

To sdist-package, install and test your project, you can now type at the command prompt:


This will sdist-package your current project, create two virtualenv Environments, install the sdist-package into the environments and run the specified command in each of them. With:

tox -e py26

you can run restrict the test run to the python2.6 environment.

Available “default” test environments names are:


However, you can also create your own test environment names, see some of the examples in examples.

whitelisting non-virtualenv commands

New in version 1.5.

Sometimes you may want to use tools not contained in your virtualenv such as make, bash or others. To avoid warnings you can use the whitelist_externals testenv configuration:

# content of tox.ini
whitelist_externals = make

depending on requirements.txt

New in version 1.6.1.

(experimental) If you have a requirements.txt file you can add it to your deps variable like this:

deps = -rrequirements.txt

All installation commands are executed using {toxinidir} (the directory where tox.ini resides) as the current working directory. Therefore, the underlying pip installation will assume requirements.txt to exist at {toxinidir}/requirements.txt.

using a different default PyPI url

New in version 0.9.

To install dependencies and packages from a different default PyPI server you can type interactively:

tox -i http://pypi.testrun.org

This causes tox to install dependencies and the sdist install step to use the specificied url as the index server.

You can cause the same effect by this tox.ini content:

indexserver =
    default = http://pypi.testrun.org

installing dependencies from multiple PyPI servers

New in version 0.9.

You can instrument tox to install dependencies from different PyPI servers, example:

indexserver =
    DEV = http://mypypiserver.org

deps =
    docutils        # comes from standard PyPI
    :DEV:mypackage  # will be installed from custom "DEV" pypi url

This configuration will install docutils from the default Python PYPI server and will install the mypackage from our DEV indexserver, and the respective http://mypypiserver.org url. You can override config file settings from the command line like this:

tox -i DEV=http://pypi.python.org/simple  # changes :DEV: package URLs
tox -i http://pypi.python.org/simple      # changes default

further customizing installation

New in version 1.6.

By default tox uses pip to install packages, both the package-under-test and any dependencies you specify in tox.ini. You can fully customize tox’s install-command through the testenv-specific install_command=ARGV setting. For instance, to use easy_install instead of pip:

install_command = easy_install {opts} {packages}

Or to use pip’s --find-links and --no-index options to specify an alternative source for your dependencies:

install_command = pip install --pre --find-links http://packages.example.com --no-index {opts} {packages}

forcing re-creation of virtual environments

New in version 0.9.

To force tox to recreate a (particular) virtual environment:

tox --recreate -e py27

would trigger a complete reinstallation of the existing py27 environment (or create it afresh if it doesn’t exist).

setting environment variables

New in version 1.0.

If you need to set an environment variable like PYTHONPATH you can use the setenv directive:

setenv =
    PYTHONPATH = {toxinidir}/subdir

When your test commands execute they will execute with a PYTHONPATH setting that will lead Python to also import from the subdir below the directory where your tox.ini file resides.

special handling of PYTHONHASHSEED

New in version 1.6.2.

By default, Tox sets PYTHONHASHSEED for test commands to a random integer generated when tox is invoked. This mimics Python’s hash randomization enabled by default starting in Python 3.3. To aid in reproducing test failures, Tox displays the value of PYTHONHASHSEED in the test output.

You can tell Tox to use an explicit hash seed value via the --hashseed command-line option to tox. You can also override the hash seed value per test environment in tox.ini as follows:

setenv =

If you wish to disable this feature, you can pass the command line option --hashseed=noset when tox is invoked. You can also disable it from the tox.ini by setting PYTHONHASHSEED = 0 as described above.

Integration with setuptools/distribute test commands

Distribute/Setuptools support test requirements and you can extend its test command to trigger a test run when python setup.py test is issued:

from setuptools.command.test import test as TestCommand
import sys

class Tox(TestCommand):
    user_options = [('tox-args=', 'a', "Arguments to pass to tox")]
    def initialize_options(self):
        self.tox_args = None
    def finalize_options(self):
        self.test_args = []
        self.test_suite = True
    def run_tests(self):
        #import here, cause outside the eggs aren't loaded
        import tox
        import shlex
        errno = tox.cmdline(args=shlex.split(self.tox_args))

    cmdclass = {'test': Tox},

Now if you run:

python setup.py test

this will install tox and then run tox. You can pass arguments to tox using the --tox-args or -a command-line options. For example:

python setup.py test -a "-epy27"

is equivalent to running tox -epy27.

Ignoring a command exit code

In some cases, you may want to ignore a command exit code. For example:

commands = coverage erase
       {envbindir}/python setup.py develop
       coverage run -p setup.py test
       coverage combine
       - coverage html
       {envbindir}/flake8 loads

By using the - prefix, similar to a make recipe line, you can ignore the exit code for that command.

Compressing dependency matrix

If you have a large matrix of dependencies, python versions and/or environments you can use Generative envlist and conditional settings to express that in a concise form:

envlist = py{26,27,33}-django{15,16}-{sqlite,mysql}

deps =
    django15: Django>=1.5,<1.6
    django16: Django>=1.6,<1.7
    py33-mysql: PyMySQL     ; use if both py33 and mysql are in an env name
    py26,py27: urllib3      ; use if any of py26 or py27 are in an env name
    py{26,27}-sqlite: mock  ; mocking sqlite in python 2.x